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  • Malkiat Singh Duhra

Blood Pressure Management




High blood pressure, also called hypertension, is quite common and occurs when the pressure in your arteries is higher than the normal range. If left untreated, high blood pressure can lead to health problems, such as heart disease, stroke, kidney failure, vision loss etc. most people with high blood pressure have no signs or symptoms of it. That is why it is called a silent killer. If you have high blood pressure, the force of the blood pushing against the artery walls is consistently too high. The heart has to work harder to pump blood. Consult your doctor to address this issue. The kidney helps control blood pressure by keeping the diameter of arteries wider and modulating retention or excretion of water from the body, initiated by hormones released by the kidneys.


Causes and Risk Factors :

  • Blood vessels gradually lose their elasticity over time. In young age, it may be due to obesity.

  • Men are more diagnosed with high blood pressure up to 64 years and after that age, women are more likely to have high blood pressure.

  • Your family history can also be a factor.

  • Obesity can also be a risk factor. The more you weigh, the more blood you need to supply oxygen and nutrients to your tissues. When the volume of blood increases, pressure on arterial walls also rises.

  • Lack of physical exercise can increase chances of high blood pressure.

  • Chemicals in tobacco can damage the lining of your artery walls, which can cause your arteries to narrow.

  • Too much sodium ( salt ) can cause your body to retain fluid, which increases blood pressure. Potassium helps balance the amount of sodium in your body cells.

  • Over time, heavy alcohol use can damage the heart and lead to heart failure, stroke, and an irregular heart rhythm.

  • Stress can lead to a temporary increase in blood pressure, if you try to cope with stress by over eating, tobacco, and alcohol then all these can contribute to high blood pressure.

  • Chronic conditions like kidney disease, sleep apnea, and diabetes can affect blood pressure.

  • Birth control pills can increase blood pressure.

  • Many women have blood pressure during pregnancy so keep in touch with your family doctor.

  • Secondary hypertension may be caused by kidney problems, adrenal gland tumour, thyroid problems, blood vessels defects, obstructive sleep apnea, chronic alcohol use, pain medicine, antidepressants, decongestants, and hormones.


Blood pressure is the amount of force your blood uses to get through your arteries. When your heart pumps, it uses force to push oxygen and nutrient rich blood out to your arteries and it reaches your body’s cells and tissues.


Blood pressure can be reduced by changing your lifestyle :

  1. Cut your salt intake to less than 6 grams a day.

  2. Eat a low-fat, balanced diet, and eat plenty of fresh vegetables and fruits.

  3. Be active and get involved in regular exercise.

  4. Don’t smoke and avoid drinking alcohol.

  5. Maintain a healthy weight.

  6. Drink less tea and coffee.


You can take these steps, regardless of whether or not you are taking blood pressure medicine.


Medicines for High Blood Pressure :

  • If you are under 55 years of age or you are of any age and have type 2 diabetes then you are usually offered ACE inhibitor or an angiotensin- 2 receptor blocker ( ARB )

  • If you are aged 55 or older or of any age and don’t have type 2 diabetes then you're usually offered calcium channel blocker


  1. Angiotensin- converting enzyme ( ACE ) inhibitors reduce blood pressure by relaxing your blood vessels. Side effects are dry cough, headache, and dizziness.

  2. Angiotensin-2 receptor blockers ( ARBs ) have the same action as ACE inhibitors. It is recommended if ACE inhibitors cause side effects.

  3. Calcium channel blockers reduce blood pressure by widening your blood vessels. Side effects are headaches, swollen ankles, and constipation.

  4. Diuretics are offered if you have side effects and have signs of heart failure. Side effects are dizziness when standing up, increased thirst, rash, and frequent urination.

  5. Beta blockers reduce blood pressure by making your heart beat more slowly and with less force. It is used when other treatments have not worked. Side effects are dizziness, headaches, tiredness, cold hands and feet.


Consult your family doctor to get proper medicine and its dose. A normal blood pressure reading is typically 120/80. The top number of the reading is called the systolic pressure, and the bottom number is called the diastolic pressure. The systolic number measures your blood pressure at the exact movement your heart beats. The diastolic number measures your blood pressure between each heartbeat. Hypertension is a serious medical condition and can increase the risk of heart, brain, kidney and other diseases. It is a major cause of premature death worldwide.



Note: The information presented in this article is not medical advice (please consult your doctor), and is purely for informational purposes. 

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