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  • Malkiat Singh Duhra

Heart Attack Management

Updated: Jan 23, 2022




Visit your family doctor regularly so that they may screen you during regular physical exams for risk factors that can lead to a heart attack. The following are the tests to diagnose a heart attack.


Electrocardiogram ( ECG ):

Signals are recorded as waves displayed on a monitor or printed on paper. Because injured heart muscle doesn’t conduct electrical impulses normally, the ECG may show that a heart attack has occurred or is in progress.


Blood tests:

Certain heart proteins slowly leak into your blood after heart damage from a heart attack. A blood test will show the presence of proteins.


Chest X-ray:

An image of your chest shows the size of your heart and its blood vessels and fluid in your lungs.


Echocardiogram:

Sound waves ( ultrasound ) create images of the moving heart. It will show how your heart’s chambers and valves are pumping blood through your heart. It can help to identify whether an area of your heart has been damaged.


Coronary catheterization ( angiogram ):

A liquid dye is injected into the arteries of your heart with a catheter. The dye makes the arteries visible on X-ray, revealing areas of blockage.


Cardiac CT or MRI:

These tests create images of your heart and chest. A cardiac CT scan uses

X-rays. Cardiac MRI uses a magnetic field and radio waves to create images of your heart. Each can be used to diagnose heart problems including the extent of damage from a heart attack.


Treatment:

Each minute after a heart attack, more heart tissues deteriorate or die. Restoring blood flow quickly helps prevent heart damage. Consult your doctor to take medicine.


Aspirin:

Take aspirin immediately. It reduces blood clotting, thus helping maintain blood flow through a narrowed artery.

Thrombolytics:

These drugs help dissolve a blood clot that is blocking blood flow to your heart. The earlier you receive a thrombolytic drug after a heart attack, the greater the chance you will survive and have less heart damage.

Antiplatelet agents:

It helps prevent new clots and keeps existing clots from getting larger.

Heparin:

It makes your blood less sticky and less likely to form clots. Heparin is given by IV or by an injection under the skin.

Morphine:

It is a pain reliever.

Nitroglycerin:

It is used to treat chest pain ( angina ), can help improve blood flow to the heart by widening ( dilating )the blood vessels.

Beta-blockers:

It helps relax your heart muscle, slow your heartbeat and decrease blood pressure, making your heart’s job easier. It also limits the amount of heart muscle damage and prevents future heart attacks.

ACE inhibitors:

These drugs lower blood pressure and reduce stress on the heart.

Statin:

These drugs help control your blood cholesterol.


Cardiac rehabilitation:

It is generally focused on four main areas; medication, lifestyle, changes in emotional issues, and a gradual return to your normal activities. It helps in living longer and being less likely to have another heart attack.


Precautions:

  1. Get regular medical checkups.

  2. Control your blood pressure and cholesterol levels.

  3. Regular exercise at least 30 minutes a day.

  4. Maintain a healthy weight.

  5. Avoid smoking.

  6. Eat a healthy diet as prescribed by your doctor as low in salt, saturated fats, and sugar.

  7. Avoid smoking.

  8. Manage diabetes.

  9. Avoid or limit alcohol.

  10. Control stress.

  11. Practice good hygiene.


Heart problems:


Heart failure:

The heart can’t pump enough blood to meet your body’s needs.

Heart attack:

A blood clot blocking the blood flow through a blood vessel that feeds the heart causes a heart attack.

Stroke:

Arteries to your brain are narrowed or blocked so that too little blood reaches your brain and brain tissue begins to die.

Aneurysm:

A bulge in the wall of your arteries bursts and causes internal bleeding.

Peripheral artery disease:

Your legs ( extreme end ) don’t receive enough blood flow.

Sudden cardiac arrest:

It is a sudden unexpected loss of heart function, breathing, and consciousness caused by arrhythmia.


Symptoms:

  1. Chest pain, chest tightness, chest pressure, chest discomfort

  2. Shortness of breath and sweating

  3. Pain, numbness, weakness, coldness in your legs and arms.

  4. Pain in neck, jaws, throat, upper abdomen, or back.



Note: Please ensure to contact a qualified medical doctor to get their opinion as well.


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